## How to modulate an LED

Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) require a DC forward bias current to output light. The characteristics of an LED is such that there is a operating region where the

In this post, we are going to study three important tools for the analysis of electromagnetic fields: the gradient, divergence and curl. We will see a clear definition

## Generating precise nanoseconds pulses with a microcontroller

Introduction Microcontrollers are often required to generate timed output nanoseconds pulses. The pulse width of the pulses that can be generated from a microcontroller is limited by its

## LG G5 Review

A metallic case, a removable battery, double back camera, one of the most powerful processors of the market and, moreover: it’s the first modular phone! More specifically,

## Kangertech SUBOX Nano Review

If you are a smoking, you know what you need to do: QUIT! We use technology in our advantage every time more and there are even tech solutions to help

## APD Bias Circuit

Introduction This circuit presented in this post, an APD bias circuit, generates a low-noise bias voltage for avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The circuit employs a low-noise fixed-frequency PWM DC-DC

## Normal incidence over conductors

The following image shows the different wave components (incidence, reflection and transmission) that we are going to study in this post: Reflection and Transmission Coefficients The reflection coefficient from

## Read RFID tags with an Arduino and RC522

Introduction RC522 are cheap RFID modules that can be used to read and write data on Mifare tags. The microcontroller and the module uses SPI for communication. The

## LTI Systems Tutorial

As we did in our previous post, we are going to share with you a tutorial to learn about LTI Systems in the time domain and filtering. Therefore,

## Snell’s Law

Law of Reflection When a wave is propagating through a medium and find a surface that is a boundary to another medium, part of the wave is reflected

## Tutorial: How to create a waveform (.wv) file with Matlab

In this tutorial we are going to see how to create a waveform file by using Matlab and a free software from Rohde & Schwarz. First, have a look

## How to interface a matrix keypad to an Arduino

Introduction In this post, we are going to show you how to interface a matrix keypad to an Arduino. In the most simple case, typically one port pin

## Polarization Of Plane Waves

The polarization of an uniform and plane wave describes the time changing behaviour of the electric field in a given point of the space. As we saw in